托福TOEFL(Test of English as a Foreign Language)是一国际英语水平测试,用于测试应试者的英语水平是否能够在英语环境中就读大学本科和研究生课程,是进入北美大学的准入考试,去美国、加拿大等国留学的学生要参加的。

  新托福由四部分组成,分别是阅读(Reading)、听力(Listening)、口试(Speaking)、写作(Writing)。

  一、阅读(Reading)有三篇文章。

  二、听力(Listening)取消了短对话

  三、口试(Speaking)把TSE(Test of Spoken English)融合在新托福中。

  四、写作(Writing)要求考生在1小时内完成两篇作文。

  考试内容和形式

  新托福考试将采用真实场景,模拟大学校园中的动态和交互式环境,试题综合考查听、说、读、写4项英语语言能力,考生可充分展示使用英语进行交流的能力。

  新托福考试将通过互联网进行,考试采取机考形式。新托福考试的考试时间和各部分试题数目都是固定的。但该考试不采用计算机出题的方式,即题目难度与上一题回答是否准确无关。

  更多托福阅读、口试、听力、写作资讯来源:

新托福lecture听力技巧有哪些???

新托福听力的Lecture,也就是学术讲座部分,有不同的展开形式。有的Lecture通篇都是教授的独角戏,有的Lecture中加入了学生和教授的互动环节,加入讨论的形式,有的互动少,有的互动多。互动多的Lecture听起来如同课堂讨论,结构近似对话。总的说来,Lecture的形式有独白,互动及互动+独白三种展开形式,而后者最多,占六成以上。进而,我们可以把Lecture肢解为独白和互动两块来应对。

互动部分,即师生互动相对简单,无非是下列两种情况:
1. 教授请学生回答问题,如让学生举例或阐述概念等等
【例1】
Prof.
Ultrasound is used by many animals that detect, and some of them send out, very high frequency sounds. So what’s a good example? Yes, Carol?
Carol
Well bets. Since they are all blind,…
教授要学生举一个使用Ultrasound的动物的例子
【例2】
Prof.
So, what do you think another example of displacement activity might be?
教授要学生再举一个展示displacement activity的例子
【例3】
Prof.
Now we can’t really talk about fairy tales without first talking about folk tales because there’s a strong connection between these two genres, these two types of stories. In fact, many fairy tales started out as folk tales. So, what’s a folk tale?
How would you characterize them? Jeff?
Jeff
Well, they are…
教授要学生解释folk tale 的含义
【例4】
Prof.
Now, from your reading, what do you know about Paris, about the art world of Paris during the late 19th century?
教授要学生回答从阅读材料中得出的相关信息

2. 学生提问教授解答:学生在听课过程中对教授讲述的知识点不能完全理解或者有疑问或者想进一步了解时对教授提问
【例1】
Stu
…Um but could you maybe like clarify what the difference is?
Prof.
Of course, that’s a fair question…
【例2】
Stu
But how’s that proof that the Sahara used to be a lot wetter? I mean…
Prof.
Okay…

【分析】
上述情况都是我们学生在平常课堂中非常熟悉的场景,因此非常容易理解。遇到互动时,除了要认真听,尽量听懂提问和回答更要注意语气语调和分析隐含义,尤其是当教授评价学生的观点或回答时,提高警惕,此处常出重听题。教授的评价多为学生的观点或回答片面或错误,通常都是委婉指出的,不打击学生的积极性。比如”well, in this area probably. But are we typical?”,”又如”that’s really a good suggestion, Karl. But that’s called…”
但偶尔也出现过不留情面的,如曾经的一道考题中,教授的反馈是 ”Hmm? Oh, uh… I’m sorry but no. It has nothing to do with that.”
重听题的题干很可能是 why does the professor say this?
正确答案如to indicate that the student’s answer is wrong.

独白部分,也就是教授一个人在讲述要点,听上去类似学术文章当中的段落。这些独白部分的段落有一定的结构特征。常见的段落结构有下面几种:

1. 阐述要点型:
这种类型的段落非常接近严谨有逻辑的学术文章段落,结构是提出要点——解释要点中的术语——举例展开 ——概括要点(时有时无),讲述较具体的段落,在举例展开中可能不止一个例子,可能使用一些手法使表述更清晰,如比较或对比手法。
这种类型的段落在新托福听力中很常见,具有一定的代表意义,同学们应该熟悉这种结构的套路,有助于考试时更好理解行文思路和主旨。

【例1】
Another thing that distinguishes a real language is a property we call discreteness. In other words, messages are built up of smaller parts—sentences out of words, words out of individual sounds, etc. Now, maybe you could say that the prairie dog’s message is built from smaller parts, like say for example our prairie dog spots a predator, a big coyote approaching rapidly, so the prairie dog makes a call that means coyote, then one that means large and then another one to indicate its speed. But do you really suppose it makes any difference what order these calls come in? No. but the discrete units that make up language can be put together in different ways. Those smaller parts can be used to form an infinite number of messages including messages that are completely novel, that have never been expressed before. For example, we can differentiate between “a large coyote move fast” and, say um, ”move the large coyote fast”, or “move fast large coyote”, and I truly doubt whether anyone has ever uttered either of these sentences before. Human language is productive, an open-ended communication system, whereas no other communication system has this property.

【例2】
And another feature of language that’s not displayed by any form of animal communication is what we call displacement. That is, language is abstract enough that we can talk about things that aren’t present here and now. Things like”my friends Joes is not in the room,” or ”it will probably rain next Thursday.” Prairie dogs may be able to tell you about a hawk that’s circling overhead right now, but they’d never show any inclination to describe the one they saw last week.

此lecture的主要内容是把动物的交流系统区别于语言的几个特征。
【例1】中,段落首句即提出要点,指出另一个特征是动物交流缺少语言所具有的一种叫discreteness的属性,discreteness这个词是个学术生词,很多同学比较陌生,但不用担心,教授一定会解释这个词的含义,接下来的句型是典型的解释句型,”in other words,…”大家这个句子要听明白。段落接下来就举例证明,”For example”,先举prairie dog遇到coyote发出的叫声的例子,后举人类语言的例子,最后总结概括,人类语言具有这种属性,而其他交流系统都没有,与首句分论点呼应。

【例2】中也是段落首句提出要点,解释要点中的学术生词displacement,典型句型”that is…”,然后举例,”things like...”

同学们注意,上述例子里提到的几个特征,是听的重点应该记下来,如果遇到生词,建议记下来首几字母,然后听后面的解释。真实考试中有时候是解释这个词的意思,有时候是用一个大家熟悉的词做该生词的同位语。都可以帮你理解这个词的含义。
考试时对这几个特征考细节题,问你有哪些特征,可能是双选或三选。对于段落中的例子也是可能的考点,可能问你例子的作用,后者可以推断出什么。

2. 现象解释型:
教授提出现象,进行解释。常用设问形式提出对该现象产生的不理解,然后阐述原因。结构是陈述现象——提出疑问——解释原因(或列举若干解释理论)

【例1】
Now, the older lakes,… As for the recent lakes..Another difference…
Why these difference? Well, there are some ideas about that…
【例2】
Most of rocks move … but some, and this is interesting, move ….Um…how can that be? how about …? …

对于这种结构,同学们要关注的三点:
1.设问句可能考重听,问教授这样说的时候暗示了什么 “what does the professor imply when he says this? ”
2.解释的原因可能考细节题 why / what reason is …?
3.解释理论的正确性或可靠度。曾经真题中考过教授对解释理论的态度。“what is the professor’s attitude toward the experiments ?”

以上2种结构是学术文章中段落展开的典型代表。希望同学们能熟悉掌握,考试时能快速反应和预测,争取听力考试的主动权。Be an active listener!